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48 Threads found on edaboard.com: **Complex Magnitude**

A pure delay (e.g. an ideal delay line) shows as frequency dependent phase shift in the frequency domain but doesn't affect the **magnitude**. In **complex** signal math, the delay is represented by a rotation operation:
H(jw) = exp(-jωT)

Elementary Electronic Questions :: 10-08-2015 06:58 :: FvM :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **612**

Consider original point of this thread.
Decibel definition should be db20() not db10() for this thread point.
For example, consider S-parameter of Touchstone format
There are following three styles for **complex** value.
(1) dB/Angle
(2) Mag/Angle
(3) Real/Imag
Here Mag=10^(dB/20)

Elementary Electronic Questions :: 09-21-2015 15:10 :: pancho_hideboo :: Replies: **16** :: Views: **6641**

when analyzing the vector of a power source into an AC grid with other power sources, the inverse impedance or Admittance matrix is used to,analyze the power transferred.
When a single source is compared with the **complex** impedance load, the real and imaginary (or reactive power) can be expected, calculated and measured, the latter which is rated i

Elementary Electronic Questions :: 10-14-2014 23:16 :: SunnySkyguy :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **2397**

Your expression for Vout/Vin is NOT correct.
At first, R2 (not R) appears in the numerator.
But more important: The transfer function is **complex** - thus, you must apply **complex** calculations for finding the **magnitude** and phase.

Analog Circuit Design :: 10-21-2013 10:59 :: LvW :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **585**

"replacing s by jw provides the transfer function for physical frequency w, that is, the transmission **magnitude** and phase for a sinusoidal input signal of freqency w"
i could some how understand it ambiguously, but cannot prove it by myself.
The **complex** frequency variable s=sigma+jw is used primarily to compute an

Elementary Electronic Questions :: 07-25-2013 07:37 :: LvW :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **5467**

I have two situations:
1) I am trying to calculate the "Total SAR" inside a solid sphere with known mass. I am first integrating Local SAR over the sphere: Scl : Integrate(Volume(Sphere_1), LocalSAR)
2) I am trying to calculate the average value of the **complex** **magnitude** of the E-Field along:
a) a 2D line
b) a 3D volume

Electromagnetic Design and Simulation :: 07-04-2013 15:57 :: etothe456t :: Replies: **0** :: Views: **1313**

there may be systems with good PM as 60degress, and bad GM as 3dB(because of RHZ after UGB.
The well-known design rules like 60 degree phase margin for no overshoot in transient response are valid for low-pass loop gain characteristic with a dominant pole. For more **complex** transfer functions with arbitrary **magnitude** and phase respo

Analog Circuit Design :: 04-25-2013 07:13 :: FvM :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **1299**

If you measure loop gain in small signal analysis, you'll see that the barkausen criterion (**complex** loop gain = unitity) is met for C = about 2.01 pF. For larger C, loop gain **magnitude** is > 1 at zero phase. The unusual point is that the loop gain is rising versus frequency (at least in the applied measurement configuration).
In Nyquist diagram,

Analog Circuit Design :: 04-10-2013 14:57 :: FvM :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **456**

The second **magnitude**/phase diagram is apparently showing a closed loop transfer characteristic. Although the closed loop can be derived from the open loop frequency characteristic, the phase hasn't the meaning of a phase margin. What do you exactly want to compare?
The general expression of the (**complex**) closed loop transfer characterictic Acl o

Analog Integrated Circuit (IC) Design, Layout and Fabrication :: 01-25-2013 22:55 :: FvM :: Replies: **9** :: Views: **780**

You can excite with an AC voltage source and measure the current or use a current source and measure the voltage.
then you know that:
V/I = Z = R/ (1+ jwRC) that is the impedance of the RC circuit.
w = 2* pi * frequency
Take into account that V, I and Z are **complex** numbers. So you have to measure **magnitude** and phase.
Calculate V/I from your measur

Analog Integrated Circuit (IC) Design, Layout and Fabrication :: 01-13-2013 00:23 :: albert22 :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **536**

Impedance is for AC what resistance is for DC circuits. It relates I versus V. That is I=V/R. The difference is that in AC circuits you have to take in account **magnitude** and phase so the impedance is now represented by a a **complex** number instead of a real number for resistance.

Elementary Electronic Questions :: 11-04-2012 17:34 :: albert22 :: Replies: **2** :: Views: **556**

Yes, they are basically the same idea but there are huge differences also. In a phasor representation we try to represent a wave by its **magnitude** and phase, which essentially translates into a **complex** number in an Argand plane. So 100 Exp would be a vector having **magnitude** 100 and phase (- w t). This is particularly helpful in linear system

Mathematics and Physics :: 10-16-2012 21:05 :: bishshoy007 :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **6030**

To measure a resistance respecticely a **complex** impedance in a simulator, I'll inject a current into the node and measure the voltage.
But all other methods would work in AC analysis as well. The only important point is to achieve correct DC bias without introducing AC feedback or circuit loading.

Analog Integrated Circuit (IC) Design, Layout and Fabrication :: 10-04-2012 21:23 :: FvM :: Replies: **16** :: Views: **1371**

The |Z| plot mainly suggests an unsuitable measurement setup or broken impedance meter.
To determine L and reasonable frequency range for the measurement, you should rather a show **complex** impedance or **magnitude**/phase plot.
Before impedance and LCR meters have been become popular, people used to determine **complex** impedances with a (...)

Electromagnetic Design and Simulation :: 05-30-2012 10:03 :: FvM :: Replies: **2** :: Views: **576**

Hello, I have the following Fourier **complex** signal:
v(t) = 2/πsin(500πt)+1/2sin(1000πt)+1/3sin(1500πt)
I need to find the minimum sampling rate for this signal.
So, according to the Nyquist Theorem, the sampling rate must be twice the highest frequency component contained in the original signal.
So I assume my sampling r

Elementary Electronic Questions :: 04-22-2012 00:31 :: fran1942 :: Replies: **1** :: Views: **616**

If VCO is a **complex** signal vector then by simple math mag(VCO) is the instantanious **magnitude** of the **complex** signal vector and real(VCO) is the real part of the **complex** signal vector.
Now if you were to look at the spectrum of the **complex** signal VCO you would see several tunes, each being a vector at the (...)

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 12-28-2011 08:05 :: RealAEL :: Replies: **2** :: Views: **1032**

The most logical way is to inject a current into the device and to simulate the voltage across it (ac simulation).
If you choose 1 Ampere then the **complex** voltage is identical to the **complex** impedance (X=V/I).
Now you have the choice to display **magnitude** and/or phase as function of the frequency or the locus curve in the (...)

Analog Circuit Design :: 12-13-2011 15:00 :: LvW :: Replies: **1** :: Views: **3694**

What's your particular problem? No arithmetic needed, just connect an AC current source, measure voltage. Different representations (**magnitude**/phase, **complex** impedance) can be selected in the plot window.

Software Recommendations :: 11-14-2011 22:50 :: FvM :: Replies: **9** :: Views: **45**

A Chebyshev type I filter has only poles, one real and a **complex** pair in case of 3rd order. Your simplified assumption about relation of poles/zeros and **magnitude** characteristic doesn't aplly to **complex** pole pairs, I think.

Elementary Electronic Questions :: 11-05-2011 00:06 :: FvM :: Replies: **7** :: Views: **3138**

you know something about **complex** gaussian distributed frequency response? If I have 9 subcarrier,'n', and 3 users,'k', how can I obtain the **magnitude** |Hk,n|? means, the channel response of user k on subcarrier n.. I hope someone can help me.

Digital communication :: 06-20-2011 08:34 :: fahmiazman :: Replies: **0** :: Views: **611**

The impulse response of the channel is transformed in the frequency domain as summation of **complex** exponentials in the frequency domain, the **magnitude** spectrum has spectral peaks that are quasi-constant over a minimum band that is the inverse of the maximum delay (delay spread), the same for the phase spectrum where it is linear only in such band.

Digital communication :: 05-10-2011 07:14 :: Ahmed Alaa :: Replies: **8** :: Views: **5100**

I'm not sure but I don't think you can use **complex** impedance for the discrete port. Maybe just take the **magnitude** of impedance?
Z = R +jX ... since you have a positive value, you are dealing with an inductive reactance. |Z| = sqrt( R^2 + X^2 ) = 151.55 Ohms.
Or use lumped components in the 3D model...
Or use the 50 ohm port and then use the PSpi

Electromagnetic Design and Simulation :: 08-04-2011 11:24 :: Leegit :: Replies: **1** :: Views: **1469**

Technically, the fence does not "cause" interference, as in generating unwanted frequencies out of thin air. What it can do is reflect energy off of it. The phase angle and **magnitude** of that reflection can vary dramatically with a small frequency change. So if you are trying to send a widband signal with some sort of **complex** modulation format, a

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 02-04-2011 21:30 :: biff44 :: Replies: **2** :: Views: **2729**

Yes, it's not easy - however, rather straightforward. Use the **complex** transfer function (2nd order) and calculate the **magnitude**.
Then, set the **magnitude** equal to 1/sqrt(2) and solve for w. But I do not recommend this procedure cause you will learn not too much. Therefore, the normal and classical approach is to use tables in textbooks (...)

Analog Circuit Design :: 11-02-2010 21:35 :: LvW :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **11267**

Hi dBmd,
neglecting the up-to-now-discussion I like to answer your original question as follows:
When doing a bode **magnitude** plot for a **complex** pole, do I use the real or img part of the pole ? Matlab seems to point to the img part (20), which is confusing since for the non-**complex** pole, the real part (1) is used.
tf=1/((s+1)*(s^2+s+400)
U

Analog Circuit Design :: 10-01-2010 09:25 :: LvW :: Replies: **18** :: Views: **4135**

Hey guys..need some help with MATLAB.
I want to draw a graph of **magnitude** of
(40*cos(x) + i*54.77*sin(x))/(54.77*cos(x) + i*40*sin(x))
where x is x=0:pi/20:4*pi;
I am just getting a graph for single value and not the complete x domain. Can you help me here?
Please find the attached file for graphs of numerator and denominator seperate

Mathematics and Physics :: 09-12-2010 16:43 :: abbeyromy :: Replies: **5** :: Views: **1481**

What's the influence of **complex** poles to OP-amp stability?
In "CMOS Analog Circuit Design 2nd Edition" by Phillip Allen, he pointed out that the **complex** poles may result in poor phase margin in section 7.1, more specifically Figure 7.1-5(a).
Can anyone tell me why the poles p2 and p3 in Figure 7.1-5(a) is bad for PM or recommend some paper whic

Analog Integrated Circuit (IC) Design, Layout and Fabrication :: 09-06-2010 15:14 :: threekingtiger :: Replies: **5** :: Views: **1375**

Power spectral density is the quantity you display in a power spectrum or spectrogram, there's no difference. Basically, a power spectrum is the **magnitude** part of a the **complex** fourier transform output. You can use MatLab to calculate it, or even a spreadsheet calculator like MS Excel.

Digital Signal Processing :: 09-07-2010 18:44 :: FvM :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **2880**

Hello,
I need to decide if to apply a "sophisticated" error correction for power ratios to a given system or to use something simple for power detection.
The problem is when apply the six terms error correction.
Hence, I woul like to ask if the values of those terms are **complex** numbers (**magnitude** and phase)?
The Agilen Application Note 128

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 03-15-2010 22:45 :: itzikhaim :: Replies: **0** :: Views: **913**

sinc3 vs cic:
guess it is a trade-off between **complex**ity and performance. More **complex** -> better image removal and vice versa.
slope to **magnitude**:
all these filters do are just averaging. More **complex** filters given you average of the averages many times over. Now finding the average is just integration, if you ignore (...)

Digital Signal Processing :: 02-10-2010 13:19 :: bulx :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **1241**

Hello!
I'm working on a thesis about Speech noise reduction in Matlab.
Basicly these are the steps Im following:
1.Read oiriginal signal
2.Add Gausian noise
3.Frame sampling
4.**complex** Spectogram
5.**magnitude** Filtering (Using a bilateral Filter)
6.Reconstruction(IFFT,Overlap resynthesized frames,Normalized resynthesized frames)
But the r

Digital Signal Processing :: 08-24-2009 17:53 :: siqsi :: Replies: **0** :: Views: **2888**

You can use the fields calculator to calcuate the **complex** current and then knowing the **magnitude** and phase of the voltage you can calculate the impedance. I have been trying to do this with a dipole my self. Our set ups sound similar but I am just using a voltage source between the two cylinders and then measuring the current right at the center of

Electromagnetic Design and Simulation :: 07-17-2009 18:24 :: Spinoza :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **2156**

hi.
if i get a **complex** impedance of a microstrip trace, then what is the impedance really? the real part, or the **magnitude**?
for terminating a microstrip line. normally done by a resistor.
i just did some EM simulation, then calculations on the results, and it says:
z0=67.36+j*64.8 ohm. **magnitude** is 93.42
if i calculate the (...)

Electromagnetic Design and Simulation :: 04-04-2009 22:40 :: buenos :: Replies: **0** :: Views: **1473**

S-parameter is **complex** (**magnitude** and phase) so it cotains more information than the power ratio. In any case, even if you define it as a RATIO of two powers, it doesn't have the unit of power. 10Log is incorrect.

Elementary Electronic Questions :: 05-27-2008 19:50 :: loucy :: Replies: **6** :: Views: **1711**

There is a specific method to increase FFT resource utilization by using real and imaginary part, but as a first step, it's easier to simply zero the imaginary input part. Furthermore, a window function is usually needed when the FFT of a signal cutting is to be analyzed. And a **magnitude** should be calculated from **complex** FFT output.

Digital Signal Processing :: 05-12-2008 14:33 :: FvM :: Replies: **1** :: Views: **1593**

Hello everybody, I have some questions about signal type setting in simulink:
(1)?Real? and ?**complex**?, which type should I use? What?s the difference between them?
(2)If I set the signal type to ?**complex**?, whether I should add a ?**complex** to **magnitude**-angle? module to see the output spectrum?
The detailed descripsion (...)

Software Problems, Hints and Reviews :: 04-21-2008 07:12 :: waosai :: Replies: **0** :: Views: **1417**

Convert your ADC's real data into **complex** format by simply setting the imaginary parts to zero. Then feed that into the FFT.

PLD, SPLD, GAL, CPLD, FPGA Design :: 03-20-2008 00:57 :: echo47 :: Replies: **5** :: Views: **2394**

For RHP zero LHP pole doublets: peak ac **magnitude** and 180 degrees in phase
For **complex** poles: the same as doublets.
How to distinguish the pole-zero doublet or **complex** pole in the bode plot as pic shown

Analog Circuit Design :: 02-11-2008 03:46 :: sigmadelta :: Replies: **0** :: Views: **1702**

Hi, WinglJ:
Field quantity is a **complex** value (c = re + j im ), absolute value of a **complex** value is |c| = sqrt( re*re + im * im ). Regards.

Electromagnetic Design and Simulation :: 08-10-2007 23:12 :: jian :: Replies: **5** :: Views: **1339**

The fft() returns an array of **complex** values. A **complex** value tells you **magnitude** and phase. The abs() function extracts the **magnitude** (amplitude) and discards the phase. That's what you want for an ordinary spectrum plot.
If you wish to display the **magnitude** in decibels rather than linear units, then you (...)

Digital Signal Processing :: 08-05-2007 21:49 :: echo47 :: Replies: **8** :: Views: **1616**

hi
i m cofused in some Question as in previous post , yet not cleared....
i m posting some of my results(pics) of the above code , plz try download it and try to explain me from these ........
1) first the original signal in text form ,i read it in matlab
2) The FFt of the origial signal ( This gives a **complex** plane)
3) why we need Ab

Digital Signal Processing :: 08-05-2007 19:20 :: vjfaisal :: Replies: **5** :: Views: **1620**

It sometimes depends on who's FFT function you are using.
Here is a MATLAB example. Notice the fs/N and 2/N.
If you are unfamiliar with MATLAB, the abs() function returns the **magnitude** of a **complex** number.
N = 64; % number of points
fs = 4000; % sample rate
f1 = 750; % signal 1 frequency
f2 = 1000; % signal 2 f

Digital Signal Processing :: 04-27-2007 23:48 :: echo47 :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **10582**

Yes, but you are not averaging correctly. You must treat the **complex** number has a whole, not interpolate the **magnitude** and angle separately:
1/2* = 0.651*e^(-j*52.9*deg)
You can also break it into real and imaginary parts, interpolate those separately, and get the same result.

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 02-13-2007 18:12 :: madengr :: Replies: **7** :: Views: **1096**

I am working on a **complex** filter for wireless communication, 6-stage, biquards structure, for ideal inputs, the outputs is good enough. the image suppression (-2M Hz) is 70dB, but when mismatch occurs in the inputs (0.3dB in **magnitude** and 1° in phase), the image suppression have reduced to 34dB,(what i need in 35dB at least) which was run in TT cas

Analog Circuit Design :: 06-23-2006 09:22 :: 776ft :: Replies: **0** :: Views: **777**

hi,
i want to find the peak value of the given input 2048-point **complex** data,
please give me the algorithm or verilog code for this...

PLD, SPLD, GAL, CPLD, FPGA Design :: 03-07-2006 05:52 :: param :: Replies: **1** :: Views: **1019**

That question is bad!
There is no "n" variable.
a = 0.88 * exp( j*2*pi/5 ); % This is a **complex** number
nn = 0:40; % This is an array
xn = a.^nn; % "xn" is a Complx # raised to a power "nn"
for n = 128. % this looks like it wants to be a loop w/128 i

Digital Signal Processing :: 01-27-2006 17:19 :: Element_115 :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **1784**

hi,
as of such, there are no rules that say the contant shouldnt be a **complex** number. **complex** numbers only convey more information abt a signal( for that matter) which has in addition to the **magnitude** in ordinary numbers, the phase content of the signal. And u would know it can again be represented in the **magnitude** phase (...)

Mathematics and Physics :: 01-14-2005 08:57 :: cedance :: Replies: **9** :: Views: **1505**

Of course the permittivty is a **complex** number and thus has **magnitude** and phase, so one should be careful in extracting this value. Of course a piece of equipment called the Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) with the electrical option will measure a sample's **complex** permittivty as a function of frequency directly, but unfortunately this piece (...)

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 04-22-2004 14:46 :: MoonShine :: Replies: **7** :: Views: **2518**

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