# Fundamental Period

160 Threads found on edaboard.com: Fundamental Period

## fundamental period for DT seq x[n]=cos(pi* (n)^2 / 8 ) ?

Hi friend, i replyed your message on the group and i will rewrite it here again; Regarding your qestion which was the fundamental period of cos(pi . n^2/8), I see if wee add N to n as followes: pi/8^2 = pi/8 (n^2+2nN+N^2) pi/8^2= pi n^2/8 + pi 2 n N/8 + pi N^2/8 now according to your result that is the minimum fundamental p

## How to find out the fundamental period for 2 discrete waveforms?

I have a waveform which is the sum of two discrete frequencies- y = sin ( 2Πf1n) + sin( 2Πf2n) where f1 and f2 are discrete frequencies. How to find out the fundamental period for this? I have forgotten the procedure for this Thanks in advance.

## 1. Is the signal x(t) = cos2(2ft) periodic? If so, what is the period?

the scaling in the time in the angular frequency never hampers the periodicity it just alters the fundamental period of the signal that is cos t is periodic and also cos 2t is periodic both have only 1 difference that is their fundamental period differs in both the case (...)

## The Fourier spectrum of signals

Fourier Transform (CT-Aperiodic Signals) Fourier series is used to represent a periodic signal as a linear comb. of harmincally related exponentials (from sophomore level course). As a result of periodicity these signals possess a line spectre with equidistant lines. Line spacing = fundamental frequency (1/T where T is (...)

## Find fundamental period using stem function

Hi all, i am new to Matlab.Could anyone help me to generate and plot the below 3 sequences using Matlab "stem" function What should i define in my script? x1=sin(0.6Пn+0.6П) x2=sin(0.68Пn) x3=3sin(1.3Пn)-4cos(0.3Пn+0.45П) thanks alot regards scdoro

## compute graph sequence

Hi all, i am new to Matlab.Could anyone help me to generate and plot the below 3 sequences using Matlab "stem" function qn1) What should i define in my script? qn2) how do i obtain the fundamental period by just observing the graph? x1=sin(0.6Пn+0.6П) x2=sin(0.68Пn) x3=3sin(1.3Пn)-4cos(0.3Пn+0

## How to determine if the equation is a periodic signal?

Note that For a discrete-time signal to be periodic it has to satisfy x=x where N is the fundamental period and the condition on it is that it should be an integer. For a continuous-time signal to be periodic it has to satify x(t+T)=x(t) where T is the fundamental period and there is no r

## fundamental question about reset.

Generally, we can use two types of 'reset'. The one is syncronous reset. Another is asyncronous reset. I have a fundamental question about this reset. What is the purpose of two types' reset? When do we have to adopt sync reset to the HDL? When do we have to use async reset to the HDL? Why do the two type of resets exist? I do not ex

## Fourier Series Oppenheim

Ok, I located the example problem. Frankly, I dont understand your question. Are you speaking about Figure 3.7? The figure explains the effect of different fundamental period T of the rectangular pulse. If T = 4T1, meaning, the rectangle pulse lying in the origin extents from -2T1 to 2T1 and if T = 8T1, then same lies between -4T1 to 4T1. In

## How can I calculate the period of this signal?

Your ECG signal has very low amplitude at the fundamental frequency, so a plain FFT would give you poor info. It would be better to apply some sort of non-linear filter to it first, such as computing fft(ECG_1 > 0.5) instead of fft(ECG_1). This example shows the first strong spectral peak at about 1.23 Hz. Zoom in to see it: clear; lo

## Another signals doubt....

Is x = cos periodic. If yes, find its period The answer given is: periodic. period =8 How to solve this problem? since ω=2Πf assume signal is cos wn so f=1/8 since f is expressed as the ratio of 2 inteer so it is periadic we have the condition of periodicity f=k/N where N is (...)

## spectrum analysis with the fft basics and Matlab 4 begineers

hi every one, i would like to share some of the uses of fft for spectrum analysis. Hope it will be useful for those who are novice to MATLAB programming. DFT Notes: DFT produces a discrete frequency domain representation.Also, DFT is only defined in the region between 0 and Fs. (as we know, One period extends from f = 0 to Fs, where Fs is

## Analog/RF Squarer using geometric series

If you cascade self-multipliers you can get the higher order tones but I think you will be hard pressed to keep them in the phase you'd like, across a wide / high frequency range. You would want the natural delay through the multipliers to be much, much less than the fundamental period (few degrees, more like) if you want to see a pretty squ

## DT signal fundamental period?/ DT system stability?

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## how to simulate the noise of pfd+cp+lpf using hspicerf ?

when I do PSS and PNoise.There are many simulators which have analyses called as PSS, PAC and Pnoise. Describe correct vendor's name, tool's name and its version which you use as tool or simulator. PSS: beat frequency=50MHz; number of harmonics=30; moderate;

## Autocorrelation & pitch detection

Why does autocorrelation function approach zero at the fundamental period of a signal?

## PLL with fine frequency resolution

If you're trying to measure the frequency of a signal with bandwidth close to the frequency of the signal itself, then period measurement isn't even really valid, since your signal's "frequency" can change greatly within one fundamental period. The counter method will just give you an estimate of the average frequency over one (...)

## What is fundamental frequency of signal x(t)

If the signal is x(t) =5+ 6cos(40xpixt) + 3cos(60xpixt) + 10 cos(120xpixt) What is fundamental frequency of this signal What we mean by fundamental frequency

## How can measure the angle degree of sinusoidal signal

I'd use the cross() calculator function looking for the right-sense zero crossings, and do the arithmetic to turn time into degrees. Timebase being the fundamental period of whichever phase you call the master reference.

## Bolier control application. PWM output with a PIC16F876 to control valve.

Hello everyone, bellow shows a question with regards to micro-controllers which I am currently interested in, but stuck on, and need some (a lot) of help! A boiler has an analogue inlet and outlet temperature sensor and the output controls a valve in the gas supply to determine the heat input. This valve must be activated within 1ms from a cha

## Capacitor DC charging question.

We can't say a sinusoidal waveform has a fundamental frequency of 0Hz because the lowest frequency is 0, it's DC? Right? Thanks Jack

## HELP!!!!!! Fundemental frequency

There should be something wrong. Since I saw the time dependency from 't' I expect that you are speaking of an analog signal and 'n' is a parameter to be set. In this case you will have a period that is T=6/(2n-1) function of the parameter 'n' and this is also the fundamental period. If instead you are speaking of a discrete sequence, 't' (...)

## output voltage fourier transform of a SPWM 3 phase inverter

Well if you're just simulating, then it should be a matter of getting the raw data and dumping it into matlab, then doing an FFT. Or you could build the simulation entirely in matlab. Try to make sure that either the duration of the sampled data is an exact integer multiple of your fundamental period, otherwise you'll end up with an incorrect resul

## Digital Chebyshev Filter Design help ->

Hi NeuralC, thinking again at your application, maybe there is something better and easier you can do if what you need is to measure the mean value of a periodic signal. Sum the samples over an whole period (or an integer number of periods). It doesn't matter at which phase of the periodic signal you start. In this (...)

## The Asynchronous Logic - link collection

Thanks for the pointers. Asynchronous logic is an interesting but definitely not new topic. There was lot of research done on this topic in sixties, even a textbook or two were written at the begining of the seventies and then the subject went out of fashion only to reappear again 5 or 6 years again. There are several fundamental unsolved

## Which one is better, HFSS or CST ?

The question basically boils down to the fundamental difference between the Frequency Domain FEM (HFSS) and the Time Domain Finite Difference (MWS) methods. We know that FEM is good for arbitrary inhomogeniety, while FDTD is good for obtaining wide-band result. Can either of these completely replace the other? NO. There is no point in defacing a

## Which protocol to use for sending SMS using PLC?

Check this ... Building on the success of the first edition, Mobile Messaging Technologies and Services offers extensive new and revised material based upon the latest research and industry developments. While early implementations targeted person-to-person messaging, MMS has now evolved to facilitate such requirements as the mass delivery of

## Which language is beeterr for designing FPGA, VHDL or Verilog?

I have lots of war stories from the founding of Chronologic (June 1991). You wouldn't believe the number of "industry experts" who told me that I was either wasting my time producing a Verilog simulator, or that it might be an interesting short-term opportunity, but in 3 years the world would be VHDL. It was literally everyone who makes a livin

## How to finish this PRF protection circuit

You are up against fundamental limits. The transition band of the filter will not be enough unless you want to threshold on 2k. That way you have an OK signal available by low pass filtering-amplify-compare. The method I propose with the 555 and the 4064 takes only 2 cheap ICs.

## Bad news for US Engineers

Dear StoppTidigare, In a general sense the needs and challenges for new circuits and system arrangements come first than the deliver of analysis and design tools. So, the human being creativity is the actual driver for new efforts in the automation field. If the human creativity activity stops for sure you will not see new programs and tools c

## [help] on-chip crystal oscillator design

I have just joined this forum and this caught my attention. i work on crystal oscillator designs for a living(I work for a crystal company) and i may be of some help here. first off, spice based simulation is not the prefered simulation tool, in the industry harmonic balance is the prefered tool. if you must use spice than it is a good idea to init

## good rf simulation software to learn working of rf circuits

flyhigh is right on the mark!! too often engineers become gurus at using the software tools but truly do not understand how or why the tools do what they do. I can't tell how many times some of my junior engineers come to me with simulations results that show their passive components have an S21 >0 !!! you always must do sanity checks to see if yo

## Who is your idole in Analog Design?

You guys forgot as idole in analog design somebody not heard: Nikola Tesla. He was propably the first. Honestly I do not know why he very unknown. Radio, Remote Control,Neon Light, X Ray, MRI, initial radar,even he patented helicopter design etc. that dude holds over 700 fundamental patents world could not have done without them. www.pbs

## help!! 8051 family controller beginner

If you are interested in CSoC you should check out Cypress, they have some very interesting SoC with 8051 core. Cypress call them: Programmable System-on-Chip(PSoC), which is a trademark. Both CSoC and PSoc are System-on-Chip, just with different names. Cypress also have some of their own Development Tools for theese chips. The Cypres

## DNL & INL analysis about ADC

Hi everyone! I am still a beginner in Analog design. Explanation by StevenL sparked my interest. I want to add-up something here: First, to simulate for ADC performance, there are two type; Dynamic range and DC(accuracy). To simulate for dynamic range, we need to perform FFT analysis. The input is a sinewave with 1kHz (The amplitude is set t

## wat will the power dissipated be???

This is interesting! I never know exactly how the meter works. Do you have any document that can help me learn more about the meter, flatulent (or others)? 8O :D You can find some interesting ONLINE facts regarding WH meter as belows: www.pu

## Newbie in PIC - Questions about Crystal

Hi again devonsc, :wink: Yes, higher frequency = higher power. But if you are running a PWM application I guess you are burning a lot more power in some power transistors? If you use a higher frequency you get a higher resolution in your timers, which gives you better precision in pulse widths. Once I built a PWM circuit with high reso

## The Fourier series representation of an aperiodic signal

Hi friends, Under some (rather wide) conditions, a (non periodic) signal defined in a finite interval can be represented in a Fourier series. When this interval is expanded from -Infinity up to Infinity, the Fourier series becomes the Fourier integral (Fourier transform). Let f(t) a function defined on an interval (a,b). Fourier

## Why the output voltage remains normal in discontinuous mode?

With reference to a PWM feedback scheme As you probably know discontinuous operation occurs when the load is low. Effectively the current flow in the inductor is stopping or stopped. Theoretically: If you have no load what so ever the capacitor will hold the output voltage up so the feedback condition will be satisfied. The output will sta

## How to simulate/plot THD for a cmos op amp using specter/ADE

Hi, The calculator toll from spectre has a built in THD function which you will find if you selectthe RF option or in the "Special functions" menu. In order to use this function you have to perform a transient simulation for at least 20 periods of the input signal and then select the waveform on which you want to evaluate the distorsions, in inp

## Question about graph of toggle output timer

oh yeh you are rite...stupid i am... just dun realize the fundamental stuff..

## Optical heartbeat monitor

Hi fabiorov I'vd done such a project during my master's project. It's quite easy for just counting the heartbeat, a infrared optical coupler will do that. Just put one's finger between the emitter and receiver, then amplify the received signal, you'll see the heartbeating on the oscillscopes. mike -------------------------------

## Calculations for Power Supply filters, and some questions...

Hello again, my friends. After realizing that normal batteries aren?t enough for the load that the speakers of my IC555-alarm need, I?m reviewing my notebooks about Power Supply design, of course, to design one myself, including the filters that are needed for a regular voltage and current. I have copies from a text book used in my college

## Help me understand FFT analyzes

I have a matlab question. My input is a 1MHz sine wave and my clk is 80MHz. When I do fft about SFDR,my peak value is not in 1MHz in fft picture. Can you tell me detail if you know. Thank you. My input is out1.txt 0010101010 0010101010 1010101000 1010101000 1010101000 1010101000 1010101000 1010101000 1010101000 1010101000 1

## i need to understand fourier transform.

very nice question. i will try to answer it because im still a student and i dont claim to be a master in DSP. when you take the fourier transform of a signal the result you get is a combination of different frequencies. a signal can have one fundamental cosine at 50Hz and harmonics like 20kHz 100kHz. in the time domain you jus

## Explanation of Nyquist sampling frequency

only to illuminate there it is the statement, as our friend echo47 had already exposed. The Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem is the fundamental theorem in the field of information theory, in particular telecommunications. It is also known as the Whittaker-Nyquist-Kotelnikov-Shannon sampling theorem or just simply the sampling theorem.

## Microcontroller test Pattern Generator:

Introduction Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) has had a dramatic impact on the growth of digital technology. VLSI has not only reduced the size and the cost but also increased the complexity of the circuits. This has brought significant improvements in performance. These welcomed improvements have resulted in significant performance/cost advant

## [questio]what relations between data rate and spectrum width

The best way to get the most accurate result is to transform the time-domain signal into frequency domain using discrete fourier transform(DFT) and take a look at its power spectrum. If a good guess is needed, why don't we start from a simple case, the 1010 pattern? The 1010 pattern with 50% duty cycle is a typical pattern contains the "hightest

## Jitter in Xstal oscillator

Hello OEMsystem: Yes, crystal oscillators (XO) has different grade in noise, most likely, phase noise, but XO makers tends to call it "jitter". For fundamental tone XO (1MHz ~ 30MHz roughly), jitter might be anywhere beween hundreds of ps to under 1 ps. And untra low jitter (communication grade) XO is very expensive. But sorry, all the

## 3dB frequency / knee frquency

You can construc the square wave from sine wave. In this case you need infinite number of frequency components of sine wave, therefore the bandwidth of ideal square wave is infinity. Many digital communication books are dealing with the concept of data rate and band width. And also you can find the "Fourier series" in many mathma