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# Integral

437 Threads found on edaboard.com: Integral

## Calculations of area under curve in Matlab

137338 here is the picture. When I use integral in Matlab, it gives error and when I use tapz, the result is wrong

## Do you think I can make a smaller inductor than the commercial manufacturers?

The only thing that can saturate a transformer is voltage. More specifically it's flux respectively V*s integral which directly relates to mT core induction. But for a given core and number of turns, flux has also a fixed relation to magnetizing current. In so far it's quite right to look at instantaneous inductor current to deci

## Stacking antenna with cst

Hello I need to stack two helical antennas in cst because antennas are in uhf range these are wide around 2 wavelength and I used integral equation solver Now in order to stack two of these antennas how to set the excitation port correctly to get a single farfield? file is attached Thanks

## Pulse transformer Problem in high duty ratios

The transformer is specified with a V*t integral of 250 ?Vs, so it should be able the transmit similar pulses without saturation. But the circuit matters - it must allow reset of transformer flux over a cycle, or in other words zero voltage average across the winding - it must drive the primary with sufficient low impedance to provide the mag

## cst accurate simulation of a 435 MHz helix antenna

Hello, I'm designing a 21 turns 435 MHz helix antenna (L=2 wavelength) and simulate with transient analysis: with 4,9 M mesh cells it takes around > 28 hours and 1K staircase cells. Maximum gain simulated is at 400 MHz VS 435 MHz calculated from updated research With integral Solver and 34 steps/wavelength now the maximum gain si around 440 MHz

## phase noise to jitter convertion

As for a free-run oscillator, the jitter accumulates over time. The wavescope calculates jitter in a certain time windows. My question is if I want to know the rms jitter of a oscillator in a time range of ,maybe 4us , then what the is the frequency range for the integral of phase noise in reponse. （mainly, the lower limit of integral

## 2.5D vs 3D full wave EM simulator

Momentum of ADS is a spectrum domain moment method. This uses green function with horizontal homogeneous and vertical inhomogeneous. So it is called as 2.5D EM solver. Then it formulates integral equation to be solved. When we use green function of full inhomogeneous, it is called as 3D even for moment method. However we can't get green functi

## How can we convert an unbounded integral to bounded one?

If I have a general integral equation ... Why do you call this an integral equation? See more on integral equations at The integral on the RHS is a definite integral. It has a pole (rather poles) at +/- w. Similar equations you will see in absorption and disper

## Measuring the energy used to recharge a 1mF electrolytic capacitor

took the integral of the instantaneous volt.current products from the start to the finish of a single recharge interval, then divided this by the recharge interval time (900ms) to get the average power over the recharge interval. The scope does this for you. We then divided this power reading by the recharge interval time in order to get the

## nMOS Cap CV curve in SPICE

I would try to emulate how semiconductor fab folks and modeling folks test it - apply a voltage ramp, acquire the current as you go, and do the math (integral of I being Q, Q being C*V, at any given V your C is I/(dV/dt). Pretty easy to set up if you have a Calculator in your waveform viewer with a deriv() function. Or you could dump raw dat

## Absolute Encoder Supplier

One possibility is to look among ads in the Business-Promotions-Advertisements section. Resourcefulness is called for. How much of the assembly needs to be replaced? How much can be left as is? Is the shaft encoder an integral part of the drilling equipment, or is it an add-on electronic component? Where does the signal from the encoder go? Do

## How to calculat Complete elliptic integrals ?

Considering the complete elliptic integral of first kind K(m) I have had as a result, using both scilab or wolframalpha: K(0.5) = 1.8540747 But you have to consider that someone consider the argument of the function as square of two that means calculate K(m^2) instead of K(m). In your case K(0.5^2) = K(0.25) = 1.6857504

## Computing moments with matlab

hey there, Can anyone help me writing a matlab program that computes the attached expressions? assume J(r') and r' have a lot of samples(lets say 100) and both contain 3 numbers (100 rows 3 columns) . I just dunno how to compute the 3D integral basically.... thank you!

## CST Integral Solver Symmetry Plane

I am trying to simulate a 2x2 array of helical antenna excited by 4 lumped ports 131916 However, when I try to simulate after defining two symmetry planes, I get the error: Some conductors could not be considered for port definition. Missing port information. For some discrete faceports the mesh information is missin

## Evaluate leakage field power in CST

Hi Gib, The power flow should be the integral of the Poynting vector through the specified plane. To do this in CST MWS, you should first define an analytical face (the face is just for analysis, and does not interfere with the model) at the plane you are interested in. The power flow monitor should be activated prior to running the simulation. W

## How do you design a PID controller for MIMO systems

I presume you answered the question yourself with the simulation circuit. You can also calculate the output by referring to integral calculus rules in a math handbook. u(t) = ∫sin ωt dt = ? Consider that term "c" (initial value) in the equation is undetermined. Furthermore OP offset voltage causes the integrator output to slowl

## reflectarray antenna phase detection

hi antenna experts. i designed a Reflectarray unit cell with proper phase shift in CST. i used unit cells in array and fed it by a horn antenna. the solution type is integral equation. now i want to know how can i gain the phase of each element(phase of fields or reflection phase ) after feeding by horn. thank you all.

Follow the IEEE Standard 1241 about ADC measurement methodology. Apply sinusoidal wave to the input and sampling it with numbers of samples≥2^N and make FFT of collected samples to get SINAD. Next calculate ENOB from formula ENOB=(SINAD-1.76)/6.02 Of course the sampling frequency cannot be an integral multiplicity of input signal frequency to

## measuring energy of incoming pulse

Pulses are of narrow width and large amplitude. Just a pulse of voltage OR current has zero energy (theoretically speaking). If your pulses have definite width and separation, they become periodic. You can certainly measure integral(Vdt) but that will not give you the energy. But a simpler way (because you know their width) is just to count and not

## [moved] Laplace transform, convergence, Basic circuit theory question.

Hi guys, I was reading in a circuit theory book, and after the definition of the Laplace transform it says how important is that the integral converges therefore the function f(t) defined for t > 0 and is zero for t <= 0. Then it continuous and I quote the book here, "Accordingly, for most of the functions encountered in electrical engineer

## What does this electrical company do?

Hello, I am trying to understand what this company ?integral powertrain? does. I take it that they don?t actually make electric motors and electric drives for cars, but, they make ?add-on? systems, which involve additional electric motors and electric drives, which mean that the main car motor/drive system is more eff

## mosfet transistor power dissipation

Do not combine the solenoid power with the MOSFET power, this is irrelevant to everyone except the source power supply. Your cases are four: "off" - Ileak*Vsupply "on" - (Vsupply/Rcoil)^2*Rds(on) - assume Vds close enough to zero "turnon" - integral power of Id*Vds across the turnon transition, against pulsed peak power for single edge and ag

## How to explain jitter accumulation

Open loop frequency error is a phase shift integral over time. Closed loop with phase detector and adequate bandwidth, uses negative feedback and phase detector as integrator to null the phase error.

## CST Antenna placement using calculated near field source

Hello, I would like to compare results from simulations of antenna mounted on UAV using Transient Solver and integral Solver. For integral I will use recorded near field source (simulation of antena placed on infinite groundplane in transient solver). Do You have any experience with nf box size used to record near field? The largest di

## How to measure distance travelled by using 3-axis accelerometer?

Velocity is the integral of acceleration, a Distance is the 2nd integral of acceleration. Thus the "analog logic" is the continuous 2nd integral of the vector acceleration and reset between readings with zero reset time and auto-cal for DC offset using ultra-low input offset chopper type Op Amps as charge amplifiers. Any small DC offset in (...)

## Selecting the right accelerometer

Filter and signal processing requirements are conflicting for all 3 functions necessary for DC tilt , gyroscope rate motion and tap impulse detection. A touchscreen is often preferred for tap sensing which are very short levels of contact pressure, wheras tilt or relative XYZ position is the 2nd integral of acceleration down to DC. Can you defin

## Integral control (PWM) of AC voltage input to a heating element

Hi. I'm designing an open loop voltage controller for my water heater element. I'm planning on using a triac and controlling it using PWM. There is no temperature sensor feedback , just plain AC voltage control. Now , could anyone point me in the right direction regarding this ? I researched AC voltage controllers from various books and have a gen

## How Calculate This integral in MATLAB?

Hi, How Calculate This integral in MATLAB? in other word how to define this function? 118316

## How to use integrator and comparator in simulink

I am also need to use time-constant integral, when initial x0=0 or 1, but the condition of integrating is defined by such formula: dx/dt=-alpha*x--so the solution is something like this--x=exp(-alpha*t) so I do not know how to define integral in simulink--there seems to be just intial value condition --is it mean that the integrating is just linear

## C-V curve of MOS varactor

Apply a linear ramp to gate in a transient simulation, calculator Q=integral (i(gate)) C=Q*v(gate) plot C with x axis changed to v(gate) Or run a parametric analysis stepping gate and set C=op(cgg)

## Understanding function of circuit

1. The third OP is acting as a comparator (the integral of a triangle would be hardly a square wave, by the way). 2. It's a voltage rather than a current source. 3. The first OP forms a schmitt-trigger. The overall feedback is negative, the combination with the schmitt-trigger makes an astable oscillator.

## example of power and energy signal

1) Your attachment is wrong: You must take the limit for T->Inf with the upper limit of the integral = T instead of Inf . On the other hand, Inf/Inf is not Inf . 2) "all non periodic signal are energy signals" is wrong. Surely you can find many examples by yourself. Z

## Definition of integral calculus?

integral calculus is absolutely nothing more than finding the total quantity of something by firstly splitting it up into many equally sized units, then adding those units up to find the overall quantity. Do you agree with that? For example, if you know that the answer to the below problem is "six" , then you fully understand essentially what i

## Frequency multiplier

It's rather difficult to multiply a frequency by such a non-integral value of 1/0.86 = 1.1628. What accuracy is required for the multiplication? A phase-lock loop comes to mind but that wouldn't work down to DC. The best I can think of is to use a micro to count the pulses and then output 11,628 pulses for every 10,000 pulses in, but th

Hi, I was building an integral expression to measure power consumption in calculator depends on other expressions: (integ((v("/Vrfp" ?result "tran") * i("/V0/PLUS" ?result "tran")) Trise_begin Trise_end) / 1e-06) The initial value "Trise_begin" and final value "Trise_end" are defined as: "Trise_begin": cross(v("/Din" ?result "tran")

## Standart VHDL function that rounds down numbers

Yes. From the man pages: floor(x) ... return the largest integral value that is not greater than x. trunc(x) ... round x to the nearest integer not larger in absolute value.

## Op. Amp Based P.I.D Design

If you are new. Start with temp sensor and master how Derivative is used to anticipate rate changes with latency on air to sensor and integral is used to amplify DC error on closure and Proportional gain keeps the loop tight. Phase margin with BODE PLOT is the measure of stability, where 60 deg is good and 90deg is nearly impossible. So,latency

## Energy Density in CST MWS

remember that |E | is the magnitude of electric field, no offence ! I know you may know that, so im trying to help. try to correct your dimensions, and then remember that the formula should have a integral , you could find it in books such as cheng, and then your E is uniform or not? I think these are important reply me A.S.A.P.! Regards

## Integrator OpAmp Question

Above words "Practical circuit" there is equation for vo as function of vi. Before integral it has a constant 1/RC. If RC=infinite then vo is zero for any vi. RC=1 means that integrator has gain=1.

## Proportional integral derivative controller

why we should do integral for error in integral controller? why we should do derivative for error in derivative controller?

## Reed relay multivibrator as a high frequency source?

A reed switch is good at creating a low resistance step voltage and into an inductive load, a ramp current limited by the current from the net series resitance. Step function is the integral of an impulse and conversely the derivative gets you back to an impulse. The spectral response of an impulse to a load is defined by it's transfer fu

## how integrate this function numerically in matlab?

hi. how integrate from the following integral over semi-elliptical path in complex ξ-plane in matlab? 109153

## numerical solution of sommerfeld integral

hi. how can I use from "integration then summation with extrapolation method" to calculate "infinite integral numerically" (by matlab)? in fact: 1. I know how solve an infinite integral numerically. 2. but I don't know how use from an extrapolation mehtod (such as shanks or levin algorithm) to accelerate convergence of equivalent series of thi

## signal integration in correlation

I agree, there is no correlation with the final integral.

## How can I calculate the following integral??

We know that sin(a)*sin(b) = cos(a-b)/2 - cos(a+b)/2 if a=(x+xo)*T and b=(x-xo)*T then: sin*sin = cos(2*xo*T)/2-cos(2*x*T)/2 the first term doesn't depends from "x" so it is costant. calling it "k" we will have: sin*sin = /2 so we will have to integrate: {/2}^(2*n) if "n" i

## Cauchy's Integral Formula - Physical / Intuitive Interpretation

I wish to know what is the intuitive meaning of Cauchy's integral formula... What does it try to do...!!! I've searched quite a few places on net but those descriptions are pretty much mathematical...!!! They all talk about a disc and winding numbers and rotations etc... In bits and pieces, I can follow what they are saying... But am still unable t

## conv_std_logic_vector task in system verilog

It is not needed in SystemVerilog You can always make an assignment from an 2-state integral to 4-state integral types.

## Simulating a integral equation in matlab

Hi guys, I am trying to write a equation by using simulation but I don't know how can I simulate the equation with integral. I know how to solve a first and second order differential equation in matlab but this is not a differential equation!!! what should I do? the equation is: L = μrl * ∫na(φ, θr) ? nb(φ, &

## How would this be implemented in practice

In analog, use op-amp integrator to run integral over value of input v(t) and then use inverting amplifier to multiply with Hp and find vk. In digital, simply convert v(t) to digital using ADC in uC as fast as possible at periodic interval, do this for time t=- using internal timer for uC and keep on accumulating value of v(

## PIC bitwise operation

In the arduino code, state is byte in MikroC, there is no byte type variable. In other words, you plan to review the mikroC manual for provided types? There's a table integral Types in chapter 6 Language Reference.