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33 Threads found on edaboard.com: **Orthogonal Signal**

How can I generate **orthogonal** spreading sequences in Matalb in frequency and time domain? What properties a set of spreading sequences should have ?
e.g in time domain
x=randi(, 10,1); % time domain **signal**
SprdSeq= rand(20,20); %% HOW to GENERATE **orthogonal** ?
Spreaded**signal**= SprdSeq *diag(x);
In frequency (...)

Digital communication :: 01-11-2017 12:24 :: Awais88088 :: Replies: **1** :: Views: **605**

First lay tracks that are controlled impedances without vias and good ground planes with microvias as needed.
Then partly lay tracks dominated in one direction and **orthogonal** ones.
Then repeat visa versa on other side for balance of **signal**s.
Complete tracks with **orthogonal** connections and vias where required.
Although not perfect, and (...)

PCB Routing Schematic Layout software and Simulation :: 08-19-2015 19:27 :: SunnySkyguy :: Replies: **10** :: Views: **1157**

The Saturn PCB toolkit has been mostly suggested for similar purposes.
It should be noted that the traces on the said layers are no clean asymmetrical stripline because the impedance is affected by traces on the other **signal** layer. You get best results by defining **orthogonal** routing directions on the adjacent layers.

Professional Hardware and Electronics Design :: 12-15-2014 11:30 :: FvM :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **1122**

They help a lot. But have you tried a big CM choke around cable and use balanced paths, minimal loop area and **orthogonal** routing to interference?

Analog Circuit Design :: 06-13-2014 01:57 :: SunnySkyguy :: Replies: **9** :: Views: **917**

The first equation corresponds to the nature of **orthogonal** **signal**s, what's the reasoning for the second one?

Mathematics and Physics :: 02-10-2014 17:07 :: FvM :: Replies: **8** :: Views: **6371**

In order to avoid possible cross-interference between neighbors **signal**s, it is very important that routing in the adjacent layers are alternately mutually **orthogonal** one each to another, as follows:
Mounting TOP ( Vertical )
GND
**signal** ( Horizontal )***
**signal** ( Vertical )
VCC
Mounting BOTT

PCB Routing Schematic Layout software and Simulation :: 01-12-2014 13:48 :: andre_teprom :: Replies: **8** :: Views: **1592**

Hi David,
check this link: **orthogonal** Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for CP length
and this is a very good website for sparse introduction Introduction to compressive sensing

Digital communication :: 02-22-2012 13:23 :: Sherra :: Replies: **5** :: Views: **789**

Do not confuse Sideband Suppression with Image Rejection.
Direct Conversion Receivers doesn't have an image frequency.
In an IQ receiver, ideally the I and Q channels of the radio **signal** carry **orthogonal**, non-interfering, channels of information.
Mismatch (imbalance) in the Gain or Phase of the I and Q channels results in interference between the

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 01-07-2012 12:48 :: vfone :: Replies: **10** :: Views: **1456**

Hi,
I don't think that the proposal of Biff44 works. The carrier as well as the sidebands of the **signal** in one linear polarization are at 90? out of phase (lead or lag) with respect to the components in the other **orthogonal** polarization. Them, the envelopes are the same (let's think in the phasors).
As an alternative to the use of CP antennas

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 12-08-2011 02:50 :: zorro :: Replies: **10** :: Views: **3594**

Yes, **signal**s of same frequency and phase sum by magnitude, **orthogonal** **signal**s, e.g. unrelated noise sources by power (total **signal** = squareroot of summed squares).

Mathematics and Physics :: 11-16-2011 11:41 :: FvM :: Replies: **11** :: Views: **1493**

It when two carriers are **orthogonal**; for example sin(ωt) and cos(ωt) - are **orthogonal** and are used to form QPSK **signal**.

Digital communication :: 10-24-2011 19:33 :: lomaxe :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **1073**

IF X and Y are statistically independent (or **orthogonal**) then the RMS of the combined **signal** (sum) will be sqrt(X^2 + Y^2) and the distribution will be exponential

Digital communication :: 02-28-2011 05:10 :: klystron :: Replies: **1** :: Views: **779**

Digital communication :: 01-13-2011 09:43 :: mod_abo_hashish :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **4278**

In book of Andrea Goldsmith, it is written that
"TDMA, FDMA, and **orthogonal** CDMA
are all equivalent in the sense that they **orthogonal**ly divide up the **signal**ing dimensions, and they therefore create
the same number of **orthogonal** particular, given a **signal** space of dimension 2BT, N (...)

Digital communication :: 02-28-2010 13:02 :: moonnightingale :: Replies: **1** :: Views: **1101**

your transmitted waveform is juat a sum of a sine and cosine, and so the **signal** power = 1 (A sine 's/cosine's power is 1/2, and they can added since they are **orthogonal**)
to be more exact
**signal** power = 1/T ∫ (from -T/2 to T/2) (sin (2*pi *t /T) + cos (2*pi *t /T) )^2 dt = 1
Since all possible symbols have same power (all (...)

Digital communication :: 12-15-2009 16:14 :: bulx :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **4823**

Hello,
What is the relation between cooperative diversity and **orthogonal** partitioning of the channel resource? and why?
Thanks in advance

Digital communication :: 09-27-2008 09:14 :: saeddawoud :: Replies: **2** :: Views: **1103**

(just an idea)
As the CDMA codes are **orthogonal**. If we correlate all the PN codes with received **signal** (considering that received **signal** is time aligned. Otherwise algo needs extension to consider delay or non-alignment), we will get different power level for all the available PN codes.
Now set a threshold, from knowledge base, to (...)

Digital communication :: 05-09-2008 16:30 :: iTdl :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **1585**

calculate the coefficients for the filter which will produce a noise v'(n) and when added to x(n) will remove the noise and leave the desired **signal**
That's basically a misunderstanding of the optimum filter concept. In the usual case, when you have uncorrelated noise and an "**orthogonal**" **signal**, a filter only can reduce spectral com

Digital Signal Processing :: 03-12-2008 18:52 :: FvM :: Replies: **1** :: Views: **4887**

hi every body i have a question
what is the difference between **orthogonal** in time and **orthogonal** in frequency
i know that in time is int(GxG*)=0
can any body help

Digital Signal Processing :: 01-25-2008 13:14 :: mr_byte31 :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **933**

From the **orthogonal** principle, E{(WY-X)Y^H} = 0, Y=HX+n
we could get WE(YY^H)=E(XY^H), assuming E(XN^H)=0, i.e., **signal** and noise are independent, and mean of the noise is zero
E(YY^H)=HE(XX^H)H^H+E(nn^H), Assumped that E(XX^H)=PI, and E(NN^H)=NI, i.e., **signal** is an independent random vector and noise is also an independent random (...)

Digital communication :: 12-09-2007 05:02 :: spweda :: Replies: **8** :: Views: **3904**

It depends on the the "symbol to bit" encoding. For example with Gray coding, adjacent symbols differ by one bit.
For **orthogonal** **signal**ing with equiprobable symbols, a symbol error is equiprobable in all (M-1) directions. So any bit to symbol encoding will suffice.
Precisely for **orthogonal** **signal**ling, Prob of bit (...)

Digital communication :: 09-04-2007 19:06 :: darock :: Replies: **7** :: Views: **1637**

HI
could any one give me the brif discription about
In **signal** processing, why we are much more interested in **orthogonal** transform?
Regards,
NP

Digital Signal Processing :: 07-26-2007 12:29 :: naresh850 :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **2040**

hi,
The NLOS (non line of sight) caraceristics of WiMAX **signal** is provided by the OFDM modulation used to bring the **signal** information.
The NLOS is performed by the **orthogonal** carriers which composed the ofdm **signal**.
The antenna is not in question
Even if you are using a -3dBi antenna versus a +7dBi one ?:D

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 06-03-2007 18:59 :: melc :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **1245**

Search Google for def. of HT.
Because the rows in a Hadamard matrix are **orthogonal**, you can use the FHT to decompose any **signal** into its constituent Hadamard components. It functions just like an FFT, except the Hadamard components are based on sequency rather than frequency. **signal**-compression applications, for example, commonly use an (...)

Digital Signal Processing :: 05-11-2007 22:21 :: pmonon :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **3375**

the e^(..) is an **orthogonal** basis. when we multiply we split the **signal** to its projection on the axces. same like:
(3,5,7) = 3?i + 5?k + 7?j
where i,j,k are the regular cartezian basis.

Digital Signal Processing :: 05-08-2007 16:16 :: mayyan :: Replies: **4** :: Views: **1808**

For example
Are sin(2Πfct) and sin(2Πfct) **orthogonal** for one period?
Is this possible?
Does that have mathematical expression?

Mathematics and Physics :: 04-12-2007 19:02 :: serimc :: Replies: **6** :: Views: **2452**

Hi
sin and cos are **orthogonal**, so if you downconvert your **signal** with cos(wt) and filter it, real part is extracted. if you downconvert your **signal** with sin(wt) and filter it, imag part is extracted.

Digital communication :: 03-18-2007 06:57 :: m_llaa :: Replies: **7** :: Views: **1828**

Where are two or more frequencies **orthogonal** to each other?
M

Digital communication :: 01-23-2007 16:00 :: magnetra :: Replies: **9** :: Views: **14271**

This is my interpretation. just tell me whether it is right..
you all agree that we use weighted summation of these basis functions to represent our **signal** (or vector)..
Now consider a continious but periodic **signal**. It can be decomposed into 'N' fourier coeffecients. So the basis functions we are using are 'N' **orthogonal** sinusoids. (...)

Digital Signal Processing :: 10-04-2006 16:04 :: priyankguddu :: Replies: **2** :: Views: **996**

In classical direction finding there are two methods using fixed antennas.
One is the time of arrival differences on two different antennas. This is done with correlation methods.
The other is two antennas with **orthogonal** radiation patters and you use the ratio of the amplitude of the received **signal** (plus a correction factor).

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 03-11-2006 01:40 :: flatulent :: Replies: **2** :: Views: **1609**

Of course it is unique, because it is decomposition on the set of **orthogonal** functions

Digital Signal Processing :: 01-09-2006 13:07 :: vadkudr :: Replies: **1** :: Views: **1436**

In the real world a complex **signal** is two **orthogonal** **signal**s. There are some instrument that can generate complex **signal**. Here is one article. May it help you.
Best Regards

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 02-06-2005 02:37 :: wt70707 :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **949**

The PSK will have 3 dB better performance at the cost of more complex receivers. The reason for the 3 dB is that FSK is **orthogonal** and PSK is antipodal. This may not mean much to you but the distance between the two **signal** points is 1.414 times larger for PSK.

RF, Microwave, Antennas and Optics :: 11-30-2004 19:49 :: flatulent :: Replies: **3** :: Views: **1708**

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