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# Orthogonal Signal

33 Threads found on edaboard.com: Orthogonal Signal

## Time and Frequency domain representation of spreading sequences

How can I generate orthogonal spreading sequences in Matalb in frequency and time domain? What properties a set of spreading sequences should have ? e.g in time domain x=randi(, 10,1); % time domain signal SprdSeq= rand(20,20); %% HOW to GENERATE orthogonal ? Spreadedsignal= SprdSeq *diag(x); In frequency (...)

## VCC signal on ground plane

First lay tracks that are controlled impedances without vias and good ground planes with microvias as needed. Then partly lay tracks dominated in one direction and orthogonal ones. Then repeat visa versa on other side for balance of signals. Complete tracks with orthogonal connections and vias where required. Although not perfect, and (...)

## Calculate impedance PCB tracks

The Saturn PCB toolkit has been mostly suggested for similar purposes. It should be noted that the traces on the said layers are no clean asymmetrical stripline because the impedance is affected by traces on the other signal layer. You get best results by defining orthogonal routing directions on the adjacent layers.

## Magnetic shielding for wire

They help a lot. But have you tried a big CM choke around cable and use balanced paths, minimal loop area and orthogonal routing to interference?

## Find RMS Voltage from FFT

The first equation corresponds to the nature of orthogonal signals, what's the reasoning for the second one?

## 6 layer stack-up recommendations

In order to avoid possible cross-interference between neighbors signals, it is very important that routing in the adjacent layers are alternately mutually orthogonal one each to another, as follows: Mounting TOP ( Vertical ) GND signal ( Horizontal )*** signal ( Vertical ) VCC Mounting BOTT

## Sparse Channels and CP Length

Hi David, check this link: orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for CP length and this is a very good website for sparse introduction Introduction to compressive sensing

## zero IF, image and iq imbalance

Do not confuse Sideband Suppression with Image Rejection. Direct Conversion Receivers doesn't have an image frequency. In an IQ receiver, ideally the I and Q channels of the radio signal carry orthogonal, non-interfering, channels of information. Mismatch (imbalance) in the Gain or Phase of the I and Q channels results in interference between the

## How to detect RHCP and LHCP

Hi, I don't think that the proposal of Biff44 works. The carrier as well as the sidebands of the signal in one linear polarization are at 90? out of phase (lead or lag) with respect to the components in the other orthogonal polarization. Them, the envelopes are the same (let's think in the phasors). As an alternative to the use of CP antennas

## What's the meaning of "the resultant noise"?

Yes, signals of same frequency and phase sum by magnitude, orthogonal signals, e.g. unrelated noise sources by power (total signal = squareroot of summed squares).

## what is the QAM system concept ? and how is duplicate the frequency band efficiency ?

It when two carriers are orthogonal; for example sin(ωt) and cos(ωt) - are orthogonal and are used to form QPSK signal.

## kindly explain this solution to me

IF X and Y are statistically independent (or orthogonal) then the RMS of the combined signal (sum) will be sqrt(X^2 + Y^2) and the distribution will be exponential

## Orthogonality - Definition

orthogonal means they have no overlap (geometrically : imagine two vectors ,they are orthogonal if projection of one is a point on the second one,or in other words their dot product =0). It may be a little confusing to understand orthogonality in OFDM ,because the basis function (signal) in ideal OFDM need to be (...)

## Does TDMA has more channel capcity than FDMA.

In book of Andrea Goldsmith, it is written that "TDMA, FDMA, and orthogonal CDMA are all equivalent in the sense that they orthogonally divide up the signaling dimensions, and they therefore create the same number of orthogonal particular, given a signal space of dimension 2BT, N (...)

## AWGN CHANNEL Gaussian noice

your transmitted waveform is juat a sum of a sine and cosine, and so the signal power = 1 (A sine 's/cosine's power is 1/2, and they can added since they are orthogonal) to be more exact signal power = 1/T ∫ (from -T/2 to T/2) (sin (2*pi *t /T) + cos (2*pi *t /T) )^2 dt = 1 Since all possible symbols have same power (all (...)

## Cooperative Diversity

Hello, What is the relation between cooperative diversity and orthogonal partitioning of the channel resource? and why? Thanks in advance

## Decoding a signal for 2 users simultaneously in CDMA?

(just an idea) As the CDMA codes are orthogonal. If we correlate all the PN codes with received signal (considering that received signal is time aligned. Otherwise algo needs extension to consider delay or non-alignment), we will get different power level for all the available PN codes. Now set a threshold, from knowledge base, to (...)

## Wiener Filter for noise reduction (URGENT HELP REQUIRED)

calculate the coefficients for the filter which will produce a noise v'(n) and when added to x(n) will remove the noise and leave the desired signal That's basically a misunderstanding of the optimum filter concept. In the usual case, when you have uncorrelated noise and an "orthogonal" signal, a filter only can reduce spectral com

## what is the difference between orthogonal in time and freq ?

hi every body i have a question what is the difference between orthogonal in time and orthogonal in frequency i know that in time is int(GxG*)=0 can any body help

## MMSE standard form ???

From the orthogonal principle, E{(WY-X)Y^H} = 0, Y=HX+n we could get WE(YY^H)=E(XY^H), assuming E(XN^H)=0, i.e., signal and noise are independent, and mean of the noise is zero E(YY^H)=HE(XX^H)H^H+E(nn^H), Assumped that E(XX^H)=PI, and E(NN^H)=NI, i.e., signal is an independent random vector and noise is also an independent random (...)

## BER for M array orthogonal signal

It depends on the the "symbol to bit" encoding. For example with Gray coding, adjacent symbols differ by one bit. For orthogonal signaling with equiprobable symbols, a symbol error is equiprobable in all (M-1) directions. So any bit to symbol encoding will suffice. Precisely for orthogonal signalling, Prob of bit (...)

## In signal processing, why we are much more interested in ort

HI could any one give me the brif discription about In signal processing, why we are much more interested in orthogonal transform? Regards, NP

## NLOS WiMAX characteristic ?

hi, The NLOS (non line of sight) caraceristics of WiMAX signal is provided by the OFDM modulation used to bring the signal information. The NLOS is performed by the orthogonal carriers which composed the ofdm signal. The antenna is not in question Even if you are using a -3dBi antenna versus a +7dBi one ?:D

Search Google for def. of HT. Because the rows in a Hadamard matrix are orthogonal, you can use the FHT to decompose any signal into its constituent Hadamard components. It functions just like an FFT, except the Hadamard components are based on sequency rather than frequency. signal-compression applications, for example, commonly use an (...)

## What we do when we multiply a signal for fourier transform?

the e^(..) is an orthogonal basis. when we multiply we split the signal to its projection on the axces. same like: (3,5,7) = 3?i + 5?k + 7?j where i,j,k are the regular cartezian basis.

## Are 2 same signals can be orthogonal?

For example Are sin(2Πfct) and sin(2Πfct) orthogonal for one period? Is this possible? Does that have mathematical expression?

## retrieving I & Q components from a complex signal

Hi sin and cos are orthogonal, so if you downconvert your signal with cos(wt) and filter it, real part is extracted. if you downconvert your signal with sin(wt) and filter it, imag part is extracted.

## When two or more frequencies are orthogonal to each other?

Where are two or more frequencies orthogonal to each other? M

## natural Basis for CONTINOUS SIGNAL

This is my interpretation. just tell me whether it is right.. you all agree that we use weighted summation of these basis functions to represent our signal (or vector).. Now consider a continious but periodic signal. It can be decomposed into 'N' fourier coeffecients. So the basis functions we are using are 'N' orthogonal sinusoids. (...)

## direction of arrival estimation

In classical direction finding there are two methods using fixed antennas. One is the time of arrival differences on two different antennas. This is done with correlation methods. The other is two antennas with orthogonal radiation patters and you use the ratio of the amplitude of the received signal (plus a correction factor).

## is solution of fourier series is unique?

Of course it is unique, because it is decomposition on the set of orthogonal functions