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Hello, Using the combination of log2 and ceil - one can determine the vector length to store n number of addresses. number_of_bits := integer ( ceil ( log2 ( real ( number_of_addresses ) ) ) ) ; But this works well only when "number_of_addresses" is equal to or greater than 2. For the number_of_addresses = 1 - The abov
create a rectangular box of width and length equal to the port dimensions, give thickness of 35 microns. finally assign material as PEC. Can you help me to understand what this is physically and why it is needed? I mean why we need to place PEC on PORT ?
Some developers will also compare std_logic_vectors of equal length using greater/less. The comparison is done lexically, which matches a comparison between unsigned values. But only when the values don't have 'Z' or 'X' or etc... and are of equal length. Unless you're using the non-standard std_logic_unsigned
in a laser, the light quantity increases with each pass thru the material. It has to do with electons turning into photons, etc. SO, if you have a standard diode laser, you just cleave the rectangular shape of it so that the wavelength of the long side is approximately equal to the physical length. THEN you can have light of the correct (...)
If you want to have delay in vhdl without "wait" statement, see this post. Another way to implement wait statement for is, by implementing a RAM based shift register. The length of RAM should be equal to (REQUIRED DELAY / CLOCK PERIOD).
Wounding a certain length of wire into a coil won't make a phase shift equal to the wire length. This is due to the EM field coupling involved, which can lengthen or shorten the time delay.
I presume you are talking about transmission line filters. The length can be expressed in fractions of a wavelength at the center frequency, e.g. λ/4 is equal to 90 degree.
I am reading paper about beam steering. I tried to simulate two patch array with parallel feeding. If patches have equal phase, S11 looks good. But if i add feeding line length for one of the patches, then there is very strange result in s11, it becomes worse, less than 10dB magnitude. Although current distribution seems good, just not inphase. Am
I understood you have to calculate the length L of a coaxial transmission line at wich the input impedance is a short circuit when it's left open at the other side. at a length equal to a quarter wavelength (and it repeats every rotation of pi) an open circuit at a side of a line will be seen as a short to the other side (...)
Have you tried modelling as line (equal to the physical length) with series C? I would simulate two lines of half the ICAP length, and use these S-parameters for de-embedding the line length from the ICAP data (cascade inverse of half length each from left and right side). Then, the remaining response (...)
I could not able to figure out the following error Port 'FloquetPort2': The exterior boundary of the faces for a Floquet Port must consist of pairs of parallel and equal length segments, displaced from each other by an integer linear combination of the lattice vectors.. Please help me out.
If your command that you send as SMS is 10 characters wide then use a ring buffer (array) of say 12 or 15 elements. Every time there is a serial interrupt check if index is equal to buffer length. If yes, reset the buffer to 0. As the command in SMS will be the last part it will get stored in the buffer. To do this you have to read the message inde
These values only affect the ac & transient simulation results. You could measure the drain & source lengths (ld & ls) - usually they are equal. If so (ld=ls=l) : area as = ad = w*l (w=transistor(gate)-width ; l=drain-length resp. source-length, l is perpendicular to the gate) periphery ps = pd = w+2l (the width (...)
Hi, First, ft=gm/Cgs, and therefore Ls = 50/(6.28*279G) = 28.5 pH :) Second, seems like you got wrong value for Cgs, i measured Cgs for transistor in 65 nm technology with gm = 34m and it equal 270 fF. If value of Ls very small, one of possibilities is decreasing ft of transistor with additional capacitor or increasing channel length.
make sure that the stub length should be very minimum and match lengths chip wise . like maintain equal length from Controller to 1 st ddr3 as a group and 2nd set controller to 2nd DDR3 etc.. Do u have signal integrity tool?If yes then we can simulate how the stub is effecting signal from quality point of view.. And (...)
I want to realize a palanaire antenna which radiated exponential format, but I can not determine the right size: - Minimum width entered maximum-width output - The length of the line knowing that I work the 9 GHz frequency and use a dielectric substrate constente equal 4.9 and 1.45 mm thick I try with L = 10mm and 3mm = Wmin and Wmax = 20
Hello sir I designed a very simple circuit with a t.v. remote I.R. sensor device , A TRANSITOR , A CAPACITOR etc & its enough able to detect a remote control unit signal form a long distance of atleast 10 metres no matter which button i am pressing on the unit . . But only a remote control unit is able to make the circuit trigger not a
Hi, so I have been working on a revised design of my first PCB based on the NXP LPC4337JBD144, the first rev is still not programming so while I have been debugging it I have done almost a complete redesign. Revisions I made from the first design: - Added bypass caps on all voltage inputs on ever device taking power from any of the power planes
How can I design high q spiral planar inductors? i know for helical inductors there is a parameter like length to diameter which should be almost equal to 1 for best quality factor but what about planar inductor? I know more turns means higher inductance and then high Q but are there are no definite formulas based on the geometry of the coil??
clear all; N = 10^6 ;% number of bits or symbols SNR_db = ; % multiple Eb/N0 values SNR= 10.^(SNR_db./10); %Transmitter d = rand(1,N)>0.5; % generating 0,1 with equal probability Signal = 2*d - 1; % BPSK modulation 0 -> -1; 1 -> 1 for i = 1:length(SNR_db) w = awgn(Signal,SNR_db(i),-3); %decision %errors(i)= zeros(errors);
There is a method called a charge bucket. Each pulse adds a little bit of charge on a capacitor. The more rapidly the pulses arrive, the more the charge builds. A resistor is in parallel, to make the charge reach an equilibrium state. The pulses must be equal in length. I believe your signal must go through a one-shot, to generate identical pulse
Im reading the ARRL 19th edition Antenna Book, chapter 2 of antenna fundamentals. Under the section of "Impedance of a Center-Fed Dipole" it tells me that: A center feed dipole can be any length electrically, as long as it is configured in a symmetrical fashion with two equal-length legs. my question is what is the books meaning (...)
All RF antennas are balanced if you by balanced mean sum of forward feed current is equal to sum of reverse current. However some antennas in a less controlled way.
Dear Friends, I'm new to this Forum. I find this very interesting and helpful. Now I want your valuable suggestions for my small project. Here I attached the circuit schematic of an analog wide-band beam steering circuit. I want to steer my antenna primary beam(8 degrees) by certain angle by introducing the cable length equal to angle of rotation.
fanout_length(2,2500) means, that for output pin with fanout equal 2, the wire length will be 2500. Then you need to multiply this wire length with capacitance : 0.2; or resistance. In such way you will able to calculate RC values for all wires. This approach is based on statistical info (average wire (...)
Minimum cost = almost zero. As stated, all you need is a dipole. For DF it doesn't have to be complicated, just a co-axial cable, one end to the receiver and the other split into two equal-length wires facing opposite directions. For 150MHz you could use a half wavelength dipole so from end to end the two wires would total 1 metre. Almost (...)
I can't give the code.. But I can help you to try on your own. Modulate the signal with the carrier. Obtain fourier transform. Suppress the other half by multiplying by a zero vector of length equal to half the sideband length all down to zero hertz, obtain inverse transformation and plot for viewing.:wink:
Hai friends, Cany any one tell me the methode of comparing two equal length arrays one is stored in eeprom and other was entered through kbd. comparison b/w strings are often easy and it work very well using the fn (strcmp) in mikroC Actullay this for a password controlled acess control mechanism, where a number of users was identified wi
clear N = 10^6; % number of bits or symbols Eb_N0_dB = ; % multiple Eb/N0 values K = 4; for ii = 1:length(Eb_N0_dB) % Transmitter ip = rand(1,N)>0.5; % generating 0,1 with equal probability s = 2*ip-1; % BPSK modulation 0 -> -1; 1 -> 0 % Channel model, multipath channel nTap = 3; ht = [0.2 0.9 0.3
Hi Hassaanliu, The length of the speech signal in seconds (let's call it T) is equal to the number of samples divided by the sample rate. In MATLAB: T=length(y)/fs; Hope this helps! Cheers, Kurt
Yes, that's unsigned, not integer. Presuming both are equal bit length, it's a simple type cast. cnt:= unsigned(preload_val);
a perfect code is a code where an equal number of received values decode to the same message for all messages (loose translation). a cyclic code is a code where all cyclic shifts of a codeword are also codewords. A perfect cyclic code would have both properties. for example, the binary golay code, G23, can be formulated as a perfect cyclic code.
Hello, Pls, does someone knows how can we determine the the inductance of the shorted slotline (Ls) and the capacitance of the open microstrip (Coc) ? Moreover, what about the length for microstrip and slotline. Have we always taken them equal to quater wave length? Thank you in advance, N
I think tail bits are equal to the constraint length (if I remember !), what do you mean by the relation between total bits and info bits ?
i am doing my project in rcs reduction of frequency selctive surfaces.. i am using hfss 13 for simulation i selected a unit cell and upo validating i gt an error as HFSSDesign1 (DrivenModal) Port 'FloquetPort1': The exterior boundary of the faces for a Floquet Port must consist of pairs of parallel and equal length segments,
how to make constant current in current mirror? whether it depends on load ? can any one tell the length should be equal in current mirror?
Try feeding with lumped port and reduce its size. Make it equal to the feed (in width ) and length = substrate thickness, I guess it is touching the gnd. Your file: CPW has got no analysis setup.
I wonder know how to design a high pass filter from a low pass filter??? I know that a bandpass filter with central frequency Vθ can be designed from a low pass filter with a passband from 0-Vc, it is equal to the length from -Vc/2 to Vc/2, to convolute with a sine wave in frequency domain. In high pass filter, I know we need to choose a
Hello Sameer, You should set the meshing frequency equal or above the highest frequency you will use in your simulation. The cells/wavelength is default 20 (from my head) and is calculated based on the meshing frequency. The actual value you need depends on how current density changes with distance. Look into the help file for how to mesh a str
Hi you need to be concerned about the number of directors which must not exceed 8 directors and the reflector length (which is equal to " 0.5lambda * 0.05lambda ) and the distance between the directors ,the distance between the directors and radiators , and the distance between radiator and reflector . regards Mohannad
First of all, the length of the monopole should be equal to lamda/4 which is equal to 29.5mm at 2.45 GHz. How did to get the value of 56.4mm and do you have a ground plane beneath the monopole antennna ?
Basically my question was Can the average length of a Huffman or Shannon-Fano code be equal to the value of entropy for a given input stream? If no, give reasons, if yes, give conditions when they will be equal.
An infinite transmission line behaves like a load equal to its characteristic impedance,if its 50 ohm line than it can be replaced by a 50 ohm load.
Hi, i want to see the spectrum of the output in a pll. In order to do so, i have put 5 blocks in series: the first is the Zero-Order-Hold (its sampling time is more than twice the main frequency of the output), the second is a Buffer, the third is the fft block(having fft length equal to that of the buffer), the fourth is the abs block and the las
are you using waveguide or microstrip ( rate race) hybrid ring? Use ADS for designing, it is easy to design. you need to calculate lambada g because you need to use this information to calculate length & impedance information. Permiter of the circle will be equal to 5*λg/4. ( 3*λg/4 + λg/2) so using this information calculat
so that if they are all equal it should set PORTC high. Well, this is probably the only sentence in your post that completely makes sense. It sounds like you want to compare 2 arrays with known equal length. If that's all you need to do, than the algorithm is fairly simple. You will need a variable to act as a tem
Hi every body! I have encounterd a strange problem in simulating an ordinary circular wave guide in HFSS,The problem is that when the length of the circular wave is equal to lambda of the guided mode in waveguide (for the dominant mode(TE11) ) S21 will have a very sharp decrease in this frequency.please note that this can not be related to the hig
Hello everyone Can you derive the formula for: - Output voltage noise - Rout - Input referred noise of the amplifier in the attached file considering the channel length modulation. How about the case (W/L) of M1 and M2 are not equal. Thanks.
Hello everyone, I'm working on a design in eagle that requires the trace lengths to be equal for several outputs. Is there a function that can automatically calculate the trace length? The method I've been using is the info command, then adding all of the individual lengths, but this doesn't account for overlapping on the (...)
Hi First it is really important you have the correct coordinate system for this. it makes it easier to analyze. Lets say port 2 is placed at z=0, and port 1 is placed at z=-l. So the length of the line is equal to l. First write the equation of the total voltage of a transmission line: V(z)=(V+)e(-jbl) + (V-)e(jbl), note it is a function of